A coordinated replication effort conducted across 17 labs found no evidence that surreptitiously inducing people to smile or frown affects their emotional state. Martin , and Sabine Stepper. Participants who held a pen between their teeth, inducing a smile, rated cartoons as funnier than did those who held a pen between their lips, inducing a frown. The study is cited frequently in the scientific literature and in introductory psychology courses and textbooks. Although other studies have tested the facial feedback hypothesis using different methods, this influential study had not been directly replicated with the same design and outcome measure.
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Facial expression as a potential measure of both intent and emotion | Scientific Reports
It reviews the scientific history of emotion perception and the evolutionary origins and functions of facial expression. It includes an updated compilation on the great debate around Basic Emotion Theory versus Behavioral Ecology and Psychological constructionism. The developmental psychology and social psychology of facial expressions is explored in the role of facial expressions in child development, social interactions, and culture. The b The book also covers appraisal theory, concepts, neural and behavioral processes, and lesser-known facial behaviors such as yawing, vocal crying, and vomiting.
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Effect of Facial Expression on Emotional State Not Replicated in Multilab Study
A facial expression  is one or more motions or positions of the muscles beneath the skin of the face. According to one set of controversial theories, these movements convey the emotional state of an individual to observers. Facial expressions are a form of nonverbal communication.